What is Processor in Computer | Types of Processors

In today's life, if we are able to operate high-speed computers, it is technological development. If this development had not happened, then you should think about how our world would have been today and how we humans would have been spending our lives.

We, humans, have developed some such powerful technologies. Which are proving to be a boon for mankind. So using this type of technology, today we are able to develop a component whose name is the 'Processor'.

So today we are going to tell you briefly about the processor. Such as what is a processor and what are the types of processors.

What is Processor in computer?

What is the Processor?

A processor or say that a microprocessor is an electronic component that is the most important for any computer. Here you should also know that arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and control unit (CU) are the two main significant components of any type of processor. Generally, a processor defines as a small type of chip that performs basically all types of arithmetical, logical, input-output instructions and operations and also processes in any computer.

In fact, the logic unit performs logic functions that can be addition, multiplication, division, and subtraction while the control unit manages the traffic flow that follows the command or operation according to the input instruction the user has inputted.

A powerful processor can perform trillions of instructions per second. And a processor, when connected to any type of computer or electronic circuit then processor itself acts as the brain of that computer or electronic circuit. The performance of older processors was slow but today's modern processors are more accurate and faster for performing different types of instructions and processes. 

Types of Processor

Now we are going to talk about the types of processors. There are many types of processors available today in terms of performance and speed. 

In term of processor types, you will learn about-

  • CISC  Processors
  • RISC Processors
  • EPIC Processors
  • Multi-Core Processors
  • Power-Efficient processors

CISC Processors

CPUs with a large instruction set, variable-length instructions, and a variety of addressing modes are called CPUs based on CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) architecture. Since CISC processors possess so many processing features, they make the job of machine language programmers easier. However, they are complex and expensive to produce. Most modern computers are based on CISC processors.

One of the earlier goals of CPU designers was to provide more and more instructions in the instructions set of a CPU to ensure that the CPU supports more functions directly. This makes it easier to translate high-level language programs to machine language and ensures that the machine language programs run more effectively.

RISC Processors

CPUs with a small instruction set, fixed-length instructions, and reduced references to memory to retrieve operands are called CPUs based on RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) architecture. 

Since RISC processors have a small instruction set, they place extra demand on programmers who must consider how to implement complex computations by combining simple instructions. However, RISC processors are faster for most applications, less complex, and less expensive to produce than CISC processors.

The instructions set of the CPU need not support other complex instructions because a computer can implement them in software by using the basic set of instructions.

Popular RISC processors used in workstations are POWER (used in IBM workstations), SPARC (used in SUN workstations), and PA-RISC (used in HP workstations).

EPIC Processors

EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing) technology breaks through the sequential nature of conventional processor architectures by allowing the software to communicate explicitly to the processor when operations can be done in parallel.

Prediction technique improves performance by reducing the number of branches and branch mispredicts. Once again, the system first takes the help of the compiler to reorder the instructions to reduce the number of branches as much as possible at compile time.

It enables the compiler to extract maximum parallelism in the original code and explicitly describe it to the processor. At compile time, the compiler detects which of the instructions can the system execute in parallel.

The speculation technique improves performance by reducing the effect of memory-to-processor speed mismatch.  We can also implement the speculation technique by taking the help of a compiler. For this, the compiler analyses a program at compile time.

Multicore Processors

In a multicore processor, each core has its independent cache (though in some designs all cores share the same cache), thus providing the OS with sufficient resources to handle multiple applications in parallel. When a single-core chip runs multiple programs, the OS assigns a time slice to work on one program and then assigns different time slices for other programs.

Multicore processors enable the building of computers with better overall system performance by handling more work in parallel. Apart from this, chip cores are on the same die in the case of multicore processor architectures, they can share architectural components, such as memory elements and memory management. Multicore processors thus have fewer components and lower costs than systems running multiple chips.

Chipmakers like IMB, Intel, AMD, and Sun have already introduced multicore chips for servers, desktops, and laptops. The current multicore chips are dual-core, quad-core, 8 cores per chip, and 16 cores per chip

Power- Efficient Processors

Manufactures of computing systems have therefore made attempts at all levels in computer architecture to reduce the power consumption of systems. Processor manufacturers have come out with new processor architectures to reduce power consumption right at the processor level. For example, the latest Intel Xeon processor offers a technology called Demand Based Switching (DBS) for reduced power consumption. 

A traditional processor operates only at a single frequency and voltage, regardless of its workload. Therefore, it is always ON and always consumes full power. Processors based on DBS technology are designed to run out at multiple frequencies and voltage settings.


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