What is CPU and What does it do | Central Processing Unit

First of all, you have to know that the CPU is not a special device by itself. Rather it is made up of many different components. The CPU itself performs all kinds of calculations and comparisons. Apart from this, the CPU also activates other units engaged in a computer system and also controls the operations of those units. 

So today we are going to tell you that "What is the CPU" and "How does CPU works?"

What is CPU and what does it do?

What is CPU (Central Processing Unit)?

As you already know, CPU considered as the brain of a computer. As we mentioned above, the CPU is not a specialized device by itself. It is composed of a Control unit, central processing unit, and storage unit. So we can say that no other single component of a computer determines its overall performance as much as its CPU.

Before we start knowing how the CPU works, we need to know how the CPU made. Here by 'how the CPU made' we mean what is the internal structure of the CPU.  So let's know that how does the internal structure of the CPU or say which component is made of CPU.

You should also know that the CPU (central processing unit) is called the central processor, main processor, and even just processor.

So the CPU usually has made of three components (units). Which we have described below.
  1. Storage Unit
  2. Control Unit (CU)
  3. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

1. Storage Unit

As the word storage is in its name, it shows that it stores the input data or say instructions and then those instructions are processed. Similarly, results produced by a computer after processing have to be kept somewhere inside the computer system before being passed on to an output unit.

The storage unit of a computer system caters to all these needs. It provides space for storing data and instructions, intermediate results, and results for output. The storage unit is also known as main memory or simply memory or internal storage or RAM or primary storage.

Basically storage unit of any computer system divided into two parts which are called primary memory and secondary memory. So we are describing below some essential functions of the storage unit-

  • A storage unit holds to stores intermediate results of processing.
  • The storage unit stores all the instructions and data which is required for processing.

2. Control Unit (CU)

By the way, the control unit of the computer does not perform any type of processing. But this unit works as a central nervous system for the components of the computer system. Think of it as if you have connected an input device with your computer system, then how will that input device confirm when to store the entered data in the storage unit. So it controls the control unit.

It also manages and coordinates the operations of all other components. It obtains instructions from a program stored in the main memory, interprets the instructions, and issues signals causing other units of the system to execute them.

3. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

You must have heard ALU's name many times. Because a computer system performs all types of calculation and comparison operations only through ALU. ALU has a full Arithmetic Logic Unit.

You understand this in such a way that when a computer is doing any process, then the instructions entered are stored in the primary storage unit of that computer. So the same stored instructions are sent to ALU to perform logic operations.

Usually, the Arithmetic Logic Unit of any computer system is designed to perform four basic arithmetic operations. These four basic arithmetic operations are add, subtract, divide and multiply. Apart from these four basic arithmetic operations, this unit also performs some logic operations and comparisons such as less than, greater than, and equal to.


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